Fowl typhoid

Fowl typhoid, caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (S. gallinarum), is widely distributed throughout the world, especially in developing countries. Fowl typhoid in chickens and turkeys is more often observed in the later growing period and in mature stock. Disease is often characterised by rapid spread with high morbidity and acute or subacute mortality. Red mites may be involved in the transmission of disease and persistence in poultry houses. Clinical signs in chicks and poults include anorexia, diarrhoea, dehydration, weakness and death. Fowl typhoid is a more acute septicaemic condition that mainly affects mature birds and may be particularly severe in commercial laying flocks. Live and inactivated vaccines are available for fowl typhoid. Salmonella gallinarum is host adapted to avian species and is considered to pose a minimal zoonotic risk.