Fight Against Animal Diseases

Adopted by the International Committee of the World Organisation for Animal Health on 30 May 2002


Adopted by the International Committee of the World Organisation for Animal Health on 30 May 2002

Risk Analysis – a Decision Support Tool for the Control and
Prevention of Animal Diseases


The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) designates the OIE as the international organisation responsible for drafting standards and guidelines on risk analysis in animal health and zoonoses

Most countries consider risk analysis to be a very useful tool in decision-making, but still require training in risk analysis methodologies

The OIE has designated a Collaborating Centre for animal disease surveillance systems and risk analysis, as well as other Collaborating Centres for the surveillance, diagnosis, control and epidemiology of animal diseases

Member Countries have indicated that the OIE should help to make risk analyses carried out by other Member Countries available as examples of the application of the process

Until now, risk analysis has been used primarily for import/export decisions; however, it is also a powerful tool for decision-making in disease surveillance and control programmes

Valid risk analyses require consideration of all steps of the process



1.  The OIE enhance its role in providing technical assistance to Member Countries by continuing the development of international standards and guidelines on risk analysis and by facilitating the external peer review of risk analyses by suggesting experts to Member Countries seeking reviewers.

2.  The OIE Collaborating Centres develop training material and continue to provide training in risk analysis methodologies and foster communication and co-operation between regional risk analysis working groups, such as the Working Group created by the OIE Regional Commission for the Americas .

3.  The OIE encourage Member Countries to increase transparency and improve risk communication by sharing risk analyses with other Member Countries to demonstrate approaches and methods in the application of the risk analysis process.

4.  The OIE develop and promote applications of the risk analysis process to enhance disease surveillance, control and eradication programmes.

5.  The OIE encourage Member Countries to ensure the validity of their import risk analyses by addressing all steps of the process, thus ensuring that they can withstand international scrutiny.


Adopted by the International Committee of the OIE on 20 May 1999

Management of animal health emergencies


The management of animal health and other emergencies remains a core function of all governments, particularly with the liberalisation of world trade

The maintenance of an adequate response capacity involves anall-hazards approach – prevention, preparedness, response and recovery – and requires development and enhancement from the farm level to the final processed product, as outlined in Volume 18 (1) of theScientific and Technical Review devoted to the ‘Management of animal health emergencies’

Veterinary Administrations in Member Countries need to ensure that adequate surveillance, diagnosis and reporting systems are in place and this requires the education and involvement of the private sector and relevant government agencies (e.g. wildlife, environment, health, emergency service s)

Adequate legal infrastructure (government approved plans, exercises, trained experts and funding arrangements to manage emergencies) are critical for success in the management of animal health emergencies, as are information and media management



1.  The OIE continue to provide a global early warning information system and, in co-operation with other agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Health Organization, International Atomic Energy Agency and others, assist Member Countries in developing emergency management capacity.

2.  The OIE assist with the provision of training workshops to develop contingency plans and emergency response arrangements.

3.  Chief Veterinary Officers of Member Countries designate, as far as possible, specialised and full-time emergency management officers responsible at a national level for the implementation of emergency management programmes. These officers should receive specialist training, train others and provide inter-agency linkages and co-ordination.

4.  The OIE Regional Commissions and Representations continue to promote technical and scientific development (e.g. new vaccines, effective surveillance and diagnostic techniques) to assist in the development of optimum response options to manage such emergencies and to improve regional co-operation.

5.  Member Countries ensure that adequate funding is made available for emergency management (prevention, preparedness, response and recovery).


Adopted by the International Committee of the OIE on 30 May 2002

The Role of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres
in Capacity Building for Developing Countries


The OIE is playing an increasingly important role in ensuring sanitary safety in international trade in animals and animal products, as recognised by the World Trade Organisation,

Trade in livestock and livestock products is an important means of economic development for developing countries,

During the 69th General Session, the International Committee adopted Resolution XIX authorising the Standards Commission1 to draw up a list of priority research needs in the field of animal diseases and zoonoses,

The Standards Commission has recognised that diseases such as foot and mouth disease, African swine fever, Rift Valley fever and Newcastle disease were serious impediments to trade,

Together with FAO and three CGIAR (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research) institutes, the OIE and the World Bank have developed a research proposal on ‘Reducing Poverty by Removing Market Barriers caused by Animal Diseases’, as part of the reform process of the CGIAR and the establishment of Challenge Programs for research,

The CGIAR Challenge Program stakeholders’ meeting held at the OIE Central Bureau from 26 to 28 March 2002 identified a list of important diseases,

During the 69th General Session, the International Committee adopted Resolution X concerning an Agreement on Cooperation between the OIE and the World Bank,



1. The research priority shall be as recommended by the OIE Standards Commission and the CGIAR Challenge Program stakeholders’ meeting and agreed by the OIE Director General and would concentrate on Foot and mouth disease, Peste des petits ruminants, Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, Newcastle disease, Haemorrhagic septicaemia, African swine fever and Rift valley fever.

2. The OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres shall be encouraged to enter into partnerships as advanced research institutes with developing countries.

3. The OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres shall be encouraged to make every effort to share scientific knowledge and skills with laboratories in developing countries and provide relevant training in the development and implementation of rapid, robust and inexpensive diagnostic tests so that disease control programmes can be improved.

4. The OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres shall be encouraged to assist developing countries in designing and producing improved and inexpensive vaccines, and, where possible, those that do not require a cold chain.

5. The OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres shall be encouraged to provide training to developing countries in the development of basic surveillance structures and programmes that will allow them to create and maintain disease free zones.

6. The OIE Director General should pursue negotiations with donors to secure funding for priority research projects relevant to the aims of the OIE with regard to scientific capacity building in developing countries.


Adopted by the International Committee of the OIE on 27 May 2004

Proposed Change to the Mandate for OIE Reference Laboratories


1. The mandate for OIE Reference Laboratories adopted as Resolution XII during the 61st General Session and modified by Resolution No. XX during the 70th General Session, states that such laboratories may contribute to provision of diagnostic testing facilities to Member Countries and that in the case of results that are confirmed positive for diseases that are reportable to OIE, the Reference Laboratory should immediately inform the OIE Delegate of the Member Country from which the samples originated,

2. The objectives of the OIE include ensuring transparency in the global animal disease and zoonosis situation and collecting, analysing and disseminating scientific veterinary information,

3. The technical capabilities for rapid and precise diagnosis of diseases by designated experts are demanded,

4. The prevalence of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases capable of rapid international spread is increasing,

5. The impact of these diseases on animal and public health, the economy and trade of Member Countries is significant,

6. There is a need for prompt preventive action to be taken by Member Countries,



1. To amend the mandate of OIE Reference Laboratories adopted as Resolution No. XX during the 70th General Session, to ask OIE Reference Laboratories to also inform the OIE Central Bureau of results that are confirmed positive for diseases that are reportable to OIE. The new mandate is proposed in Appendix 12 .

2. The results forwarded to the OIE will only be published by the OIE Central Bureau in agreement with the Delegate of the country concerned and after precise identification of the origin of the samples.


Adopted by the International Committee of the OIE on 31 May 2001

The Importance of Emerging Diseases
in Public and Animal Health and Trade


The increasing international movement of people, animals and animal products will continue to create emerging disease situations,

Veterinary Services in Member Countries or other Competent Authorities need to be informed in a timely manner of emerging diseases which occur globally,

Veterinary Services in Member Countries or other Competent Authorities could benefit greatly from coordinated technical assistance and training for new emerging diseases,

In the event of the occurrence of an emerging animal disease that has an impact on public health, many countries do not have a defined coordinated plan of operation with public health authorities,



1.  The OIE encourage Member Countries to report emerging diseases immediately, as recommended in paragraph of the OIEInternational Animal Health Code3.

2.  The OIE assist the Veterinary Services of Member Countries to develop and improve closer working relations with medical authorities in order to respond quickly and effectively to the occurrence of emerging animal diseases of public health significance.

3.  The OIE assist Member Countries in the management of new and emerging diseases by expanding the list of OIE experts to include specialists in this field.

4.  The OIE Standards Commission develop a mechanism to evaluate expediently the available diagnostic tests for emerging diseases.

5.  The OIE assist the Veterinary Services of Member Countries by providing materials on emerging diseases for information purposes.


Adopted by the International Committee of the OIE on 27 May 2004

Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonotic Diseases:
Challenges and Opportunities


1. The interaction of human and animal health is producing unprecedented challenges and opportunities,

2. Zoonotic diseases are emerging and re-emerging with greater frequency, international scope, and economic importance,

3. The factors and forces driving the expansion and scale of zoonoses are still in place and are unlikely to significantly change in the near future ; thus, the risks posed by emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases will continue unabatedly for some time,

4. Member Countries have again indicated their overwhelming support for a greater OIE role in confronting the challenges of such zoonoses,

5. Member Countries strongly believe that emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases will become a progressively greater factor in the demands on the activities of Veterinary Services , thus impacting on future partnerships, resources, and programmes,

6. FAO/WHO/OIE are engaged in cooperative agreements that will continue to provide important international linkages,



1. The OIE should actively consider within the development of the fourth strategic plan the broadening of its scope, commitment, and thinking regarding emerging and re-emerging zoonoses and place a high priority on developing guidelines for the prevention and control of these diseases.

The preparation of the fourth Strategic Plan will include proposals related to the purpose of theCodein matters of zoonotic aspects of listed diseases.

2. The OIE will consider the creation of a new Ad hoc Group on Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses that will be inter-disciplinary in membership and help to advise on sustainable agriculture development that does not increase the occurrence of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses and on surveillance systems that cover the wildlife, domestic animal, and human continuum. The group will also assist in the education of OIE Member Countries.

The new Ad hoc Group will work in collaboration with the existing OIE Working Groups on Wildlife Diseases and Animal Food Production Safety and the Ad hoc Group on Epidemiology and other relevant bodies or experts, in particular OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres.

3. The OIE should provide training through workshops and other means for Member Countries and academic veterinary and medical institutions on emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases, especially in regional activities.

4. The OIE will undertake to explore opportunities and mechanisms to promote awareness through conferences and interactions between the Veterinary Services of Member Countries, and their public health counterparts.

5. The OIE will continue to support and urge Member Countries to make progress on timely and accurate reporting of zoonoses and sharing information on emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases, realising that many of these new diseases are not associated with animal trade or traditional listed diseases.

6. In the event of serious outbreaks of zoonotic diseases that transcend national borders, the OIE will demonstrate leadership in providing guidance on disease control strategies at the animal production levels and will support the communication efforts of public health agencies in addressing human impacts.


Adopted by the International Committee of the OIE on 22 May 2003

The use of economic analysis to define animal health policies


1. Animal diseases cause very large but usually unquantified economic losses in all countries of the world through direct and indirect effects of disease incidence. Further costs are incurred through measures required to prevent the introduction of exotic diseases,

2. Failure to control animal diseases in poorer countries endangers animal health and production world-wide, as well as restricting trade and causing loss to communities that can least afford it,

3. Member Countries have indicated that insufficient use is made of economic analysis in defining animal health policies. This includes the allocation of resources to Veterinary Services, setting priorities in animal disease control and identifying the most cost-effective strategies for the control of particular diseases,

4. Member Countries have indicated that the OIE should promote and facilitate the wider use of economic analysis to define animal health policies,



1.  The OIE promote economic analyses of the impact of animal diseases, which are of global significance, with a view to developing global policies for the control of these diseases, and providing economic justification for international action.

2.  The OIE produce guidelines on techniques for economic analysis in the field of animal health to assist veterinarians and economists who do not have specialised knowledge of animal health economics.

3.  The OIE develop and maintain an indexed register of published and unpublished economic analyses in the field of animal health that sponsors are willing to make available to other Member Countries.

4.  The OIE maintain a list of experts in economic analysis of animal health policies.


Adopted by the International Committee of the OIE on 28 May 1998

Forecasting systems using the laboratory and epidemiology
to prevent outbreaks of existing and emerging diseases


The World Food Summit (November 1996), in recognising the importance of epidemic diseases of livestock to both international trade and world food security, committed the governments of countries and the civil society to seek to ensure effective prevention and progressive control of such diseases

Infectious diseases, especially those of an epidemic nature or of public health concern, are assuming increasing economic importance in the changing farming and trading systems of both industrialised and developing countries

Emerging or evolving infectious diseases have the potential to quickly change from local to international significance

Effective disease control requires efficient disease detection systems, competent diagnostic laboratories and the co-operation of farmers, veterinarians, industry, consumers and other agencies, especially medical authorities and national emergency service s

The OIE is mandated to foster the sharing of national animal health information particularly in relation to international trade

Developments in molecular biology, information technology and epidemiology permit the modelling of disease events as a basis for forecasting and early warning

Member Countries have expressed a desire to improve their systems for disease notification, epidemiology and computer-assisted disease forecasting


1. National Veterinary Services undertake to increase the awareness and enhance the involvement and education of political authorities, farmers, veterinarians, other agencies, industry and consumers in the early detection, reporting and control of infectious diseases.

2. National Veterinary Services ensure the rapid collection, despatch and examination of samples to competent laboratories for processing, in accordance with the OIEManual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines4.

3. The international donor community recognise and support the particular needs of developing countries to improve their laboratory and epidemiological surveillance capacity for early detection of infectious diseases.

4. Member Countries undertake national monitoring and surveillance of emerging and infectious diseases and co-operate at a regional level to harmonise disease reporting, data collection systems and in risk assessment and management in close collaboration with interested international or regional organisations.

5. Member Countries take steps to have disease information data on outbreak locations recorded as geo-referenced events for national databases and promote the application of geographical information systems (GIS) in national disease control programmes.

6. Member Countries, the OIE and the World Health Organisation (WHO) collaborate with the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) to progressively develop a hierarchical global early warning system, including pilot projects to be carried out on a regional basis, which complements, but does not duplicate or replace, the existing reporting obligations to the OIE.

7. The OIE promote in- service training programmes in molecular biology, epidemiology and disease-related information technologies in order to enhance the capacity of Member Countries, especially developing countries, in these disciplines.

8. The OIE encourage publications and conferences on the topics by experts in the above disciplines and promote institutional collaboration and that the OIE Working Group on Informatics and Epidemiology study the applicability of the use of GIS on an international level.

1 The OIE Biological Standards Commission (OIE BSC), R. No. XVII, 22 May 2003

2 See Mandate and Internal rules of OIE Reference Laboratories

3 Article e) of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (2004)

4 Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals, new denomination since 2003