Newcastle Disease (ND) virus is a paramyxovirus in the genus Avulavirus (pleomorphic, enveloped, negative-sense single-stranded RNA) that infects both domestic and wild free-ranging avian species. There are 12 different avian paramyxovirus serotypes characterised, but ND is limited to avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1). There are multiple pathotypes characterised based on clinical disease in chickens: viscerotropic velogenic, neurotropic velogenic, mesogenic, lentogenic, and asymptomatic enteric. APMV-1 is highly virulent and has the potential to cause significant economic consequences if an outbreak occurs.
F or the purpose of voluntary reporting on non OIE-notifiable disease in wildlife, “Newcastle disease” refers to non-poultry infections. Information on infections of velogenic ND in poultry must be submitted through the mandatory reports for the OIE-notifiable diseases.