Technical Disease Card

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 or Ovine herpesvirus 2 (Infection with)

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) are the causes of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in several ruminant and cervid species. They are part of the gammaherpesvirinae subfamily in the Macavirus genus. The reservoir host of AIHV-1 is the wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou, C. taurinus); the reservoir host of OvHV-2 is the sheep (wild and domestic). Both viruses cause clinical MCF in bovids, cervids, and pigs. There are ten identified viruses that cause MCF; six are known to cause the disease in animals. AlHV-1 and OvHV-2 are the most-widely studied and understood. Other viruses include caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2, endemic to goats) and ibex MCFV (endemic to ibex (genus Capra)). For the purpose of voluntary reporting on non OIE-listed disease in wildlife, “Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 and ovine herpesvirus 2” refers to infection in ruminant and cervid species.