European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) is an enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA calicivirus within the genus Lagovirus. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is also classified in this genus and is a significant and common differential diagnosis. These two viruses are closely related genetically and antigenically but are somewhat disparate from other caliciviruses. There appear to be multiple strains of EBHSV, some of which are geographically limited to different parts of Europe.
EBHSV affects both free-ranging and farmed hares, and is characterized by acute necrotising hepatitis. Disease is fairly prevalent in Europe because the virus is easily transmitted between individuals and is extremely resilient in the environment.