Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is the causative agent of encephalomyocarditis (EMC) infection in swine and other mammals. It is a non-enveloped, positive-sense, single- tranded RNA virus that is part of the Cardiovirus genus and Picornaviridae family. The two serotypes of this virus are EMCV-1 and EMCV-2; the former is more prevalent and causes known pathology in its hosts. Most outbreaks occur in captivity. Two strains of EMCV-1 are found in swine: type A causes reproductive disease, and type B results in heart failure.