Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV), caused by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), is a disease of domestic and wild cattle. BoHV-1 is a member of the genus Varicellovirus in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, which belongs to the Herpesviridae family, order Herpesvirales. The disease is characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, such as a (muco)purulent nasal discharge, hyperaemia of the muzzle (red nose disease) and by conjunctivitis. Signs of general illness are fever, depression, inappetence, abortions and reduced milk yield. Where natural mating is practised, genital infection can lead to pustular vulvovaginitis or balanoposthitis. However, most infections run a very mild or subclinical course. After infection via the airborne route, BoHV-1 replicates to high titres in mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract and in the tonsils. Subsequently, the virus disseminates to conjunctivae and reaches the trigeminal ganglia by neuronal axonal transport. After genital infection, BoHV-1 replicates in the mucous membranes of the vagina or prepuce, and becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. The viral DNA remains in the neurons of the ganglia, probably for the entire life of the host (status of latency). Inactivated and attenuated live vaccines are available. BoHV-1 is not considered zoonotic.